Autonomic Nerves by LINDA WILSON-PAUWELS, PATRICIA A. STEWART, ELIZABETH J. PDF

By LINDA WILSON-PAUWELS, PATRICIA A. STEWART, ELIZABETH J. AKESSON

Authored through an identical staff that created Cranial Nerves, this e-book offers an easy-to-follow evaluate of autonomic nerves. the 1st half describes their constitution and serve as. the second one half addresses autonomic keep an eye on of person organ platforms in a problem-based studying layout. all through, Autonomic Nerves describes afferent pathways, integrating constructions and mechanisms, efferent pathways, and the autonomic effectors. ideas of autonomic neurotransmission also are mentioned.

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Serzsorimotor Cortex (see Fig. 4-4) T h e r o l e of t h e s e n s o r i m o t o r c o r t e x in visceral activity is a l s o p o o r l y understood in humans. Perception of visceral pain is likely mediated in t h e sensory areas. The motor area is undoubtedly involved in t h e production of somatic motor actions involved in autonomic activities, for example, chewing a n d swallowing. Autonomic Integrating Components Figure 4-4 The areas of the cortex (insular,medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal, and the sensorimotor cortex indicated in blue) that are thought to play a significant role in autonomic function.

4-4) The role of t h e medial prefrontal cortex in autonomic function, in humans especially, is poorly u n d e r s t o o d . It receives information from t h e insular cortex, limbic system, a n d brain s t e m a n d projects to a n u m b e r of autonomic structures, such as t h e nucleus of t h e tractus solitarius a n d t h e parabrachial nucleus. Stimulation of parts of t h e medial prefrontal cortex in experimental animals c a u s e s bradycardia, hypotension, a n d gastromotor changes. T h e orbitofrontal a n d cingulate cortices relay signals from t h e limbic system to t h e medial prefrontal cortex.

Postganglionic parasympathetic axons innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands of the thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera both directly and by enteric neurons, and pelvic viscera. Development of the Autonomic Nervous System HISTOGENESIS Once t h e relatively undifferentiated neural crest cells have reached their final sites in t h e embryo, they begin to express their adult features. In t h e autonomic nervous system as in t h e somatic nervous system, at least t h r e e factors play a role in cell differentiation during development: (a) t h e environm e n t that they encounter a t their level of origin in t h e neuraxis, during migration, a n d a t their final site; (b) t h e synaptic connections t h e cells make with other neurons; a n d (c) t h e d e a t h of cells that a r e unsuccessful in competing for synaptic sites on target cells.

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