By Rongxing Guo (auth.)
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Extra resources for Cultural Influences on Economic Analysis: Theory and Empirical Evidence
Kulturkreise, which attempted to reconstruct the diffusion, or spread, of cultural traits from a few dominant cultural clusters, was associated with the German anthropologists Leo Frobenius (1873–1938) and Fritz Graebner (1877–1934). It was not in Europe, however, but in the United States that the concept of the culture area gained real social scientiﬁc cohesion. One impetus for this development was the need to make sense of the growing body of ethnographic data produced by early anthropological expeditions in the American West.
For example, when a Japanese manager says in a business negotiation ‘It is very difﬁcult’ (which is a polite manner of refusal in Japanese society), the American partner would probably ask the Japanese side to ﬁnd a solution, ﬁnding the expression to be more ambiguous. ’ Compared to language, religion can provide more insights into the characteristics of a culture. What is more important, religion can have a deep impact not only on attitudes towards economic matters but also on values that inﬂuence them.
The GDP data at constant prices are inextricably linked to the real NMP data collected by the old system. Unlike the market economies, in which real GDP is derived using a system of price indices, in centrally planned systems the basic production units at the lowest level of the statistical reporting system are responsible for computing the real output value based on a catalogue of ﬁxed prices given from above. Even though they were prepared by analysts who were attempting to make measures of GDP with the same criteria as those used for Western countries, it seems likely that the GDP growth ﬁgures of Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia from 1950 to the mid-1980s have exaggerated the economic performance of these countries (Maddison, 1996, p.
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