By James Henderson, Alastair Ferguson (auth.)
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The e-book deals an engaging mix of utilized state of the art experiences of coevolutionary improvement of associations, innovation diffusion and leading edge entrepreneurship, now not released anyplace else. it may to begin with be categorised as belonging to mainstream endogenous development stories at the state point, and secondly, to mainstream evolutionary reports.
Lately, involved governments, companies and civic teams have introduced formidable programmes of neighborhood improvement designed to halt, or even opposite, a long time of city decline. yet whereas titanic quantities of attempt and funds are being devoted to enhancing the inner-cities, very important questions have long gone unanswered: can neighborhood improvement really aid resolve long-standing city difficulties?
The essays incorporated during this e-book are the outcome ofseven years ofresearch spanning the 1990-1997 interval. such a lot of them were released in medical magazines or as chapters of books. To the tip of this version, and for you to keep away from repetitions, the unique texts were changed, rather in regards to the titles and introductions ofthe chapters.
Mit diesem Buch erhält der Leser einen umfassenden Einblick in alle für die Planung, Durchführung und Kontrolle des Betriebs öffentlicher Personenverkehrssysteme (ÖPNV) relevanten Aufgaben. Eine besondere Beachtung finden hierbei verkehrsträgerspezifische Besonderheiten, da der Betrieb öffentlicher Personenverkehrssysteme unterschiedlichen Randbedingungen und einer großen Bandbreite einwirkender Störgrößen unterliegt.
Extra info for International Partnership in Russia: Conclusions from the Oil and Gas Industry
81 The prominence of the security services in particular in the world of business “in private and state-owned companies”, is re-iterated by Schneider (2012), while Inozemtsev (2009) claims that no other country in the world has so many members of the government serving on the boards of major corporations. A further twist to the tale of vested interests in Russian business, and in particular in the oil and gas sector, is highlighted by Pirani (2010) who identiﬁes that “a signiﬁcant trend in the 2000s has been the success in private business of some of Putin’s associates”.
In fact, as has been documented by many oil companies, analysts and academic commentators,85 the key factor behind the deceleration in growth has been the imminent end of the era of the “brownﬁeld miracle” in Russia and the transition to the development of greenﬁeld sites both onshore and offshore. In essence the Soviet legacy ﬁelds in West Siberia, that went into decline so sharply in the 1990s and were resuscitated so proﬁtably in the ﬁrst decade of the 2000s, are now ﬁnally succumbing to the laws of nature and are in decline again, this time for good.
This effectively encouraged a focus on investing to meet short-term goals rather than planning for longer-term optimization of assets and meant that the only response to a stagnation of oil production was a huge increase in investment. This was precisely the response of the Brezhnev government in 1977, when a massive increase in development drilling was combined with a signiﬁcant shift of emphasis towards Western Siberia. 27 Essentially the Soviet authorities lost sight of the need for investment in the efﬁcient long-term development of their hydrocarbon resources, instead spending huge sums on short-term projects in a desperate drive to sustain immediate revenues.
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