A. Spendzharova's Regulating Banks in Central and Eastern Europe: Through PDF

By A. Spendzharova

How do financial institution supervisors strike a stability among marketplace self-regulation and pro-active regulatory intervention? This e-book investigates the alternative of banking supervision strategy in 4 ecu Union member states from relevant and jap Europe – Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, and Slovenia – after their transition to democracy and marketplace economy.

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Extra info for Regulating Banks in Central and Eastern Europe: Through Crisis and Boom

Sample text

MaRs focuses on three main aspects of macro-prudential policy: creating macro-financial models linking financial stability and the performance of the economy; identifying systemic risk indicators and activating early warning systems; and assessing contagion risks (Constâncio 2012). As we will see in Chapter 4, banking sector supervisors in Central and Eastern Europe implemented a range of responses to tackle the build-up of vulnerabilities in their countries in the early 2000s. After widespread bank privatization and consolidation across the region, some regulators such as those in Bulgaria and Estonia employed a more risk-averse 22 Regulating Banks in Central and Eastern Europe regulatory approach, demanding higher capital adequacy ratios and provisions against bad loans than required by international standards.

All in all, due to the rapid series of mergers and acquisitions, the two banking groups, Föreningssparbanken (Swedbank) and Swedish Skandinavska Enskilda Banken (SEB), emerged as dominant in the entire Baltic region. By 2001, the two groups owned more than two-thirds of the banking sector assets in the Baltic market (Ådahl 2002: 112). In Estonia, in March 2002, the two groups controlled 84 percent of Estonian loans (Ådahl 2002: 112). Föreningssparbanken and SEB discussed a possible merger in 2001, but the European Commission had serious concerns about the impact of this merger on competition in the Nordic–Baltic banking market and did not allow the deal to go through (European Commission 2001).

2000; Saurina and Jimenez 2006). Goodhart (2005) has proposed a similar loan-loss provisioning instrument to promote financial stability. Among emerging economies, India adopted counter-cyclical provisioning requirements for mortgage loans. In that case, provisions were calibrated to increase in periods of rapid credit growth (The Warwick Commission 2009: 14; Ren 2011). According to Griffith-Jones et al. (2009), a third possible instrument is based on counter-cyclical leverage ratios and loan-to-value ratios.

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