By Johannes Stephan (auth.)
Foreign direct funding (FDI) assumed a sought after function in important East Europe (CEE) early on within the transition procedure. international traders have been assigned the duty of restructuring markets, supplying capital and data for funding in technologically outmoded and financially sick firms.
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The booklet bargains an enticing combination of utilized cutting-edge experiences of coevolutionary improvement of associations, innovation diffusion and leading edge entrepreneurship, now not released at any place else. it may possibly to start with be categorised as belonging to mainstream endogenous development stories at the kingdom point, and secondly, to mainstream evolutionary reports.
In recent times, involved governments, companies and civic teams have introduced formidable programmes of neighborhood improvement designed to halt, or even opposite, many years of city decline. yet whereas titanic quantities of attempt and funds are being devoted to bettering the inner-cities, vital questions have long past unanswered: can group improvement really support resolve long-standing city difficulties?
The essays incorporated during this ebook are the end result ofseven years ofresearch spanning the 1990-1997 interval. such a lot of them were released in clinical magazines or as chapters of books. To the tip of this version, and as a way to stay away from repetitions, the unique texts were converted, quite with reference to the titles and introductions ofthe chapters.
Mit diesem Buch erhält der Leser einen umfassenden Einblick in alle für die Planung, Durchführung und Kontrolle des Betriebs öffentlicher Personenverkehrssysteme (ÖPNV) relevanten Aufgaben. Eine besondere Beachtung finden hierbei verkehrsträgerspezifische Besonderheiten, da der Betrieb öffentlicher Personenverkehrssysteme unterschiedlichen Randbedingungen und einer großen Bandbreite einwirkender Störgrößen unterliegt.
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In order to further increase the response rate, the enterprise received information about the institute coordinating the field work (IWH), the IWH FDI Micro Database itself, the survey and data confidentiality, by fax and/or email in advance upon request. The questionnaire was first programmed and internally tested for coherency before being submitted to at least five pre-tests per country. The pre-test necessitated minor changes and resulted in a questionnaire which required 15 minutes on average for completion.
In addition, no significant differences in the firm size distribution between population and sample for the transition economies are detected. In general, the results suggest that the population and its corresponding samples generate a reliable micro database. The survey is representative of various indicators; therefore, it meets the relevant criteria for scientific research within this field. 5 Survey questionnaires The theory of technological accumulation and firm internationalisation (Cantwell, 1989) proposes a dynamic relationship between spatially bounded technological externalities, and the internationalisation of firms’ R&D and innovation, as well as the potential for technological spillovers from MNEs to the domestic economy.
The resulting set of significant determinants of successful local knowledge sourcing by foreign affiliates is not only informative in itself but can also inform policy-makers about what determines the attractiveness of national innovation systems in their countries for inward FDI beyond the usual tax holidays, provision of infrastructure, and the like. This chapter contains an excursus in which the same analysis is reproduced for the case of East Germany – here, however, including spatial determinants characterising the local host environment.
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